Discourse markers for IELTS

Discourse markers link what a speaker is saying now with what has already been said or what is going to be said.

Giving examples
For example (e.g.), for instance, such as, in particular
e.g. I enjoy sports such as tennis, basketball and volleyball.

Giving details
In other words, that is to say, I mean
e.g. I like water polo, sailing, water skiing, that is to say, I enjoy all types of water sports.

Giving an opinion
I think/feel/guess/suppose/believe, in my view/opinion
e.g. In my opinion, libraries should be open till 8pm daily.

Showing contrast
On the one hand, on the other hand, while, whereas, however, nevertheless, yet, in spite of this/that, despite this/that, on the contrary, quite the opposite
e.g. On the one hand I agree with the government's decision but on the other I wonder what will happen to ordinary citizens.

Moreover, furthermore, in addition, as well as that, what is more, also
e.g. In addition to being efficient and effective, the new product is also cheap to purchase.

Similarly, in the same way
e.g. They are concerned about the noise. Similarly, they are worried that pollution levels will increase.

Going back to the previous topic
As I was saying, to return to the previous point, as I mentioned earlier
e.g. As I mentioned earlier, price is the main factor.

Firstly/first of all / to begin with / to start with / in the first place, second (ly), third (ly), lastly, finally
e.g. First of all the workers in the hospital are overworked. Secondly they are not paid enough.

On the whole, in general / generally speaking, to a great extent, in most/some/many cases
e.g. On the whole it is fair to say that most children today play electronic games.

Therefore, as a result, consequently, so/then
e.g. Prices have increased, as a result, consumers are spending less.

Summing up
In conclusion, all in all, to sum up, in short, briefly
e.g. To sum up, the figures show that the crime rate has been reduced considerably.
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