Dynamic Verbs

Verbs that relate to activity or charge are called dynamic verbs.


Dynamic verbs - durative (continous act)
Verbs such as live, work, rain, stay, talk, sleep, study, sing, teach are durative because they give no indication of their duration/termination. This property becomes most noticeable when the difference between the present perfect simple and continuous is almost neutralised by the aspect of continuity within the verb itself.


1. We have lived here for 10 years
2. We have been living here for 10 years
What is the difference in meaning, if any, between two sentences above?
Typically (with durative verbs) the perfect simple conveys finality or achievement, e.g. in the first sentence the speaker may well be about to move house. It is also often used to focus on the person rather than activity. The perfect continuous, on the other hand, is more often employed for focussing on the duration and the activity itself, and implies future continuity.

Dynamic verbs – punctual (single/repetitive act)
Verbs such as jump, slam, throw, kick, nod, and stab, depict momentary events.
Used in the continuous aspect they indicate repetition,
e.g. Robbie was kicking the ball.
The simple form requires context to convey once-off or repetitive action,
e.g. Robbie kicked the ball to David; Robby kicked the ball around.
Explain the two errors using grammatical terminology and suggesting a reason for student’s writing below.
Also, in Spain I was working 2 years as a tour guide after finish my tourism studies. Later I…
The past continuous has been used erroneously; there is no simultaneous or background event so the past simple is required. The first language would appear to have an imperfect tense, which the student thinks approximates to the past continuous in English. After is a preposition and therefore must be followed by a noun or phrase, or in this case a gerund (-ing form used a noun), finishing. (After could also be a conjunction in a time clause, e.g. after I finished my studies.)

References:
A concise grammar for English Language Teachers (ELT G 0055)
Oxford Practice Grammar (ELT G 0035)
English Grammar in Use (ELT G 0052)
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