English for Beginners - Football Vocabulary

Football Vocabulary

Given the craziness about the World Cup that we’re experiencing this summer, we’ve prepared a post for you so that you can watch a football match with the commentary in English, which we’re sure you’ll understand. Moreover, with this vocabulary you’ll be able to make some points and comments about the game and thus show your knowledge of English.

Let’s begin with the stadium and the most important parts of the pitch:

Football field / pitch
Halfway line

Pitch Vocabulary

Vocabulary related to teams and players is:


Regarding the referees and refereeing activities:

To referee
To book
Yellow card
Red card
Give the foul
Give the penalty

More vocabulary related to key actions during the game:

Half time
Full time
Extra time
Injury time
The Score
To win
To draw
To defeat
To shoot
A foul
A free-kick
A corner
A pass
A tackle

Some examples for the use of this vocabulary and phrases commonly used are:

Messi is a fantastic player, he plays for Argentina.

That was a good ball, he almost scored a goal.

The ball is in the box and it’s a clear chance for Brazil.

Oh! What a tackle, he deserved a red card!

This is an amazing team; they keep possession of the ball over 70 percent of the time.

Ronaldo missed the penalty that could have made his team to win.

That player is booked; he already has a yellow card.

Look at that shot at goal; it should have been a goal.

Great defending!

The goalkeeper made a very good save.

A YouTube video where football vocabulary is explained as well is:

Link to the Video in YouTube

To finish, some related links for you to practice football vocabulary in English:

Vocabulary at the BBC

More slang vocabulary at the BBC

Football, History, Vocabulary and Games

Football Dictionary

Podcasts about football in English

Printable files (PDF format) to work on in the classroom featuring this vocabulary about football and also related to the World Cup in South Africa
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Types of Sentences

Simple Sentences

A simple sentence contains a subject and a main verb; it contains one independent clause.

* I like coffee

This is a simple sentence with one subject and one verb forming an independent clause. Naturally, a simple sentence can include other things:

* I like a couple of cups of coffee first thing in the morning.

Compound Sentences

A compound sentence contains two or more independent clauses, often joined by a co-ordinator.

* I like coffee, but my partner prefers tea.

Complex Sentences

A complex sentence contains an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.

* Because I have trouble waking up, I have coffee first thing in the morning. (The dependent clause is in bold and the independent clause is italicized)

The dependent clause cannot exist on its own; it requires the independent clause to make sense.

Compound-Complex Sentences

A compound-complex sentence contains at least two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.

* Some people say that the best coffee comes from Brazil, but others say that the best coffee comes from the Blue Mountains in Jamaica.
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Adjectives that look like adverbs

Here is a list of adjectives  that end in -ly and sometimes get mistaken for adverbs:

    * Beastly
    * Brotherly
    * Comely
    * Costly
    * Cowardly
    * Daily (Can also be an adverb)
    * Deadly
    * Elderly
    * Fatherly
    * Fortnightly (Can also be an adverb)
    * Friendly
    * Gentlemanly
    * Gentlewomanly
    * Ghastly
    * Ghostly
    * Godly
    * Goodly
    * Holy
    * Homely
    * Humanly
    * Kingly
    * Leisurely
    * Likely
    * Lively
    * Lonely
    * Lovely
    * Lowly
    * Maidenly
    * Manly
    * Masterly
    * Matronly
    * Miserly
    * Monthly (Can also be an adverb)
    * Motherly
    * Nightly
    * Painterly
    * Priestly
    * Princely
    * Saintly
    * Scholarly
    * Shapely
    * Silly
    * Sisterly
    * Timely
    * Ugly
    * Ungainly
    * Unruly
    * Unsightly
    * Unseemly
    * Unworldly
    * Weekly (Can also be an adverb)
    * Womanly
    * Worldly
    * Yearly (Can also be an adverb)
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State verbs

State verbs refer to states which continue over some time. They do not usually have an –ing form (unless they describe an action or process).

Action verbs describe actions that have a definite start and end and can have an –ing form.

Here are some state verbs:
Mental states: remember, forget, forgive, understand, know, notice, recognise, believe, wonder, hope, consider, be, think, suppose, expect, realise, trust, seem, wish, recognise, refuse
Emotional states: like, want, desire, hate, prefer, dislike, love
Other: own, possess, see, hear, smell, consist of, owe, belong

e.g. I think about you all the time. (state)
I’m thinking about moving to China. (action)
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Have/Have got

I/you/we/they have (got)
He/she/it has (got)

X I/you/we/they don’t have OR haven’t got
He/she/it doesn’t have OR hasn’t got

? Do I/you/we/you/they have…? Have I/you/we/they got…?
Does he/she/it have…? Has he/she/it got….?

We use have/have got to:-
Show possession e.g. I’ve got a brother. He has two children. I haven’t got a computer.
To describe people, animals, things e.g. She has brown hair. It has got a long tail. The computer has a big screen.
To talk about an illness e.g. We have a headache. I’ve got a cold. He’s got a broken nose.
To describe relationships e.g. Have you got a sister? We haven’t got a brother.

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Problem pairs

Remind (someone else helps you remember). e.g. Can you remind me to take my medicine?
Remember (bring to your mind) e.g. I remembered John’s birthday.

Invent (to design or create something new). e.g. Edison invented the light bulb.
Discover (find something new - already exists) e.g. Columbus discovered the Americas in 1942.

Rob (a place or person) e.g. Three banks were robbed last week. The broke in and robbed my flat.
Steal (items) e.g. They stole hundreds of dollars from the bank. Someone has stolen my mobile phone.

Priceless (having a lot of value) e.g. Some of his paintings are priceless.
Valueless (having no value) e.g. I was fooled by the dealer. The antique piece was valueless.

Prevent (take action to stop something before it begins) e.g. We should pass laws to prevent the spread of violence.
Avoid (staying away from something) e.g. I try to avoid being stuck in traffic.

Control (to restrict someone or something) e.g. The police tightened their control over football hooligans.
Check (examine something) e.g. They checked our passport at the airport.

Beat (another team/person) e.g. Italy beat France in 2006.
Win (to come first) e.g. Italy won the world cup in 2006.

Speak/talk to somebody about something
Can I speak now?
He speaks three languages.
Can I speak to your supervisor?
He speaks quickly.
The professor only spoke for a short while.
They talked about their school days.
Let’s talk business.

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Transport - get on/off/into/out of

get on/off → a bicycle, a horse, an aeroplane, a bus, a train, a ship

get into/out of → a car, a taxi
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Used to

We use used to (+ infinitive) to talk about past habits. We don't do these things now.

I/you/he/she/it/we/they used to walk everyday.

I/you/he/she/it/we/they didn't use to work.

Did I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they use to get up early?
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Summer at Expressteach

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Academic Writing From Paragraph To Essay

Academic Writing from Paragraph to Essay course takes students from paragraph structuring to essay writing through a process approach. It teaches learners how to order and link paragraphs into cohesive and coherent essays, and to create the various paragraph types that are used in writing assignments. Academic Writing includes work on how to generate ideas, organize material, draft, review and revise written work.
academic writing from paragraph to essay
There are additional sample and reference materials at the back of the book, including models of essay development and a punctuation guide.
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Academic Vocabulary In Use

Academic Vocabulary in Use is a practice and reference Book for anyone using, or planning to use, English for their academic work. Ideal for students of any discipline, from engineers or social scientists to business students or lawyers, it covers the key vocabulary they will come across in academic textbooks, articles, lectures and seminars. Authors: Michael McCarthy and Felicity O'Dell.
Level: Designed for students at good intermediate level and above (2.g/3.g of the gymnasium).
academic vocabulary in use
  • 50 Units: such as: Systems compared: the US and the UK; Sources; Talking about ideas; Organizing your writing; Reporting what others say.
  • Presents new words and expressions in real-life academic contexts including extracts from lectures, presentations, essays, tables and graphs.
  • Includes an extra Reading and vocabulary section with longer texts to give you more practice of key vocabulary.
  • Comprehensive Answer Key and an Index with phonetic transcription of key words.
  • Handy Reference section with notes on formal and informal usage, British, Irish and North American vocabulary differences and spelling variations.
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How to use abbreviations

When we speak, we often abbreviate words. We also shorten words when we write text messages (SMS). Here's a handy guide to some of the more common abbreviations.


gonna = is / am going to (do something)
"I'm gonna call him now."

wanna = want to
"I wanna speak to you."

gotta = has / have got to (or have got)
"I gotta go!"

innit = isn't it
"It's cold, innit?"

ain't = isn't / haven't / hasn't
"He ain't finished yet."
"I ain't seen him today."

ya = you
"Do ya now what I mean?"

lemme = let me
"Lemme see … tomorrow's a good time."

whadd'ya = what do you …
"Whadd'ya mean, you don't want to watch the game?"

dunno = don't / doesn't know
"I dunno. Whadd'ya think?"

Text messaging abbreviations


2 = to / two
4 = for / four
8 = ate


U = you
C = see
B = be

CU L8r = see you later

msg – message
pls = please
cld = could
gd = good
vgd = very good
abt = about
ths = this
asap = as soon as possible
tks = thanks
txt = text
LOL = lots of love / laugh out loud
x = a kiss!
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Improving your English punctuation

It's important to know the rules of English punctuation when you write, as using the wrong punctuation may lead to misunderstandings. Using the correct punctuation is especially important when you are writing to impress, such as when you are applying for a new job, or when you are writing to a customer.

Here is a guide to the rules for using the more common punctuation marks in English.

When to use capital letters :

1. At the beginning of the sentence

It's cold today.

2. For the personal pronoun "I"

I live in a big city.

3. For "proper nouns"

- names and titles: Sarah, Mr Stevens, Doctor Roberts
- places and countries: London, England,
- nationalities and languages: He is French, She speaks Italian
- companies, products and brands: Microsoft, Coca Cola
- institutions: The Ashmolean Museum, The Department of Trade
- religions and religious festivals: Christianity, Ramadan
- abbreviated names: The BBC

4. For books, television and radio programmes, newspapers and magazines

The Simpsons, The Times.

5. Days of the week and months of the year

Wednesday, August 10th.

6. Historical periods or events

The Russian Revolution

7. Rivers, mountains and lakes and geographical regions

The Amazon, The Middle East

8. In addresses

Flat 2, 16 London Road.

When to use commas in English :

1. To separate items in a list

We need coffee, tea, sugar and milk.

British English writers do not normally put a comma before "and", although in American
English, a comma can be used.

"We need coffee, tea, sugar, and milk."

2. To separate clauses which are related in meaning

Do you know the answer, or should I ask Tony?

Where the clauses are short, commas are not used:

"I was tired so I went home."

3. After introductory phrases

Unfortunately, I cannot send you the information.

4. Before and after a word or phrase that interrupts the main clause

Some children,if they are gifted, attend special schools.

5. Before and after non-defining clauses

The factory workers, who were in a meeting, decided to accept the pay offer.
= All the factory workers were in a meeting.

Compare with a defining clause (which restricts the noun).

The factory workers who were in a meeting decided to accept the pay offer.
= Only the factory workers who were in a meeting decided to accept the offer: those workers who were not in the meeting didn't decide to accept the offer.

6. To show millions, thousands and hundreds

5, 890, 2811
10, 050

When to use a full stop :

(or "period" in American English)

1. At the end of the sentence

Thank you for your letter.

2. After initials in American English

Mr. G. Hoover. (The British English version is “Mr G Hoover”)

3. As a decimal point

2.5%, $9.99.

When to use a colon :

1. To introduce a list

You will need to bring the following: a waterproof jacket, a change of clothes, a battery-operated torch and some matches.

2. To introduce explanations

There is one thing to remember: the nights can get cold, so bring a warm jacket.

3. To write the time
The 10:40 train to London is late.

4. Between the title and subtitle of a book

Shakespeare: The Complete Works

When to use a semi-colon in English :

Semi-colons show a pause which is longer than a comma, but not as long as a full stop. Short clauses which are related in meaning can be separated by a comma. However, if the clauses are longer, you will probably need a semi-colon:

We'll need to hold some meetings abroad with our suppliers; please could you check your availability in April.

1. To separate long items in a list

Our writing course includes several components: correspondence, including
letters and emails; style and vocabulary choice; punctuation; layout and planning.

2. To give balance to sentences, or to link parallel sentences

We went out for the day; they stayed in.

When to use an apostrophe in English :

1. With an s to show possession

The company's profits.

The 's comes after singular nouns and after irregular plural nouns (those which do not end in s).

The company's staff, the children's shoes.

But the apostrophe follows the swhen the noun is plural and regular.


The boy's school (school of one boy) and the boys' school (school of many boys.)

With nouns which end in y in the singular, but end in ies in the plural (like company) the apostrophe follows the s when it is plural.

The company's profits (profits of one company) and the companies' profits (profits of more than one company.)

With hyphenated nouns, the 's comes at the end of the word.

My brother-in-law's Ferrarì.

2. To show abbreviation

I don't like smoking. (= do not)

3. In time references

In two weeks' time.

Be careful!

1. Apostrophes are not used for possessive pronouns.

Whose is this pen? (Not "Who's this pen" as "who's" = who is.

That pen is hers. (Not "That pen is her's.")

Its also exists as a possessive pronoun:

Its market has grown. (The market of the company).
(Not “It's market” as "it's" = it is or it has.)

2. Apostrophes are not used to make a plural of nouns that end in a vowel.

For example, "two memos" (not "two memo's").
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Dynamic Verbs

Verbs that relate to activity or charge are called dynamic verbs.

Dynamic verbs - durative (continous act)
Verbs such as live, work, rain, stay, talk, sleep, study, sing, teach are durative because they give no indication of their duration/termination. This property becomes most noticeable when the difference between the present perfect simple and continuous is almost neutralised by the aspect of continuity within the verb itself.

1. We have lived here for 10 years
2. We have been living here for 10 years
What is the difference in meaning, if any, between two sentences above?
Typically (with durative verbs) the perfect simple conveys finality or achievement, e.g. in the first sentence the speaker may well be about to move house. It is also often used to focus on the person rather than activity. The perfect continuous, on the other hand, is more often employed for focussing on the duration and the activity itself, and implies future continuity.

Dynamic verbs – punctual (single/repetitive act)
Verbs such as jump, slam, throw, kick, nod, and stab, depict momentary events.
Used in the continuous aspect they indicate repetition,
e.g. Robbie was kicking the ball.
The simple form requires context to convey once-off or repetitive action,
e.g. Robbie kicked the ball to David; Robby kicked the ball around.
Explain the two errors using grammatical terminology and suggesting a reason for student’s writing below.
Also, in Spain I was working 2 years as a tour guide after finish my tourism studies. Later I…
The past continuous has been used erroneously; there is no simultaneous or background event so the past simple is required. The first language would appear to have an imperfect tense, which the student thinks approximates to the past continuous in English. After is a preposition and therefore must be followed by a noun or phrase, or in this case a gerund (-ing form used a noun), finishing. (After could also be a conjunction in a time clause, e.g. after I finished my studies.)

A concise grammar for English Language Teachers (ELT G 0055)
Oxford Practice Grammar (ELT G 0035)
English Grammar in Use (ELT G 0052)
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Statics Verbs

When verbs have a stative sense it usually cannot occur in a continuous tense.  

The lists of verbs that have or can have a stative sense are shown below.

1. Mental and emotional states
Believe, doubt, feel (opine), imagine, know, like, love, hate, prefer, realize, remember, see (understand), think (opine), want, wish
2. Senses
Appear, hear, look (seem), see, smell, sound, taste
3. Reactions etc.
(dis)agree, deny, impress, mean, promise, satisfy, surprise
4. Description, possessions, etc.
Be, belong, concern, consist, contain, depend, deserve, fit, include, involve, lack, matter, need, owe, own, possess, weigh (have weight)

The examples below show that the verb like is always stative, but think can be used statively or dynamically

1. I am liking you (X)
2. I am thinking you are nice (X)
3. I think you are nice
4. I am thinking about it

The sentence “He is being cold” may or may not be acceptable, why?
In this case it’s really the adjective cold that has a stative or dynamic meaning, linked with be.
If it refers to temperature or sensation then the sentence is unacceptable because with that sense be is also stative and may not be used in the continuous aspect.
If cold means unfriendly, in fact showing unfriendliness through some activity, then be is dynamic and is correctly used in the continuous aspect.
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Conjunctions join 2 parts of a sentence, showing the connection between them.

And = gives you more information e.g. We went to the supermarket and bought some milk.

But = shows contrast e.g. We went shopping but we didn't buy anything.

Because = anwers the question why? e.g. They love eating ice-cream because it is delicious.

When = answers the question when? e.g. I got the car when I had enough money.

So = shows the result e.g. It rained so they went home.

If = shows a condition e.g. If it rains we will go home.

Although/though/even though = shows surprise e.g. Even though she was only four she could play the piano well.
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Family tree

Peter is Jane's husband.
Jane is Peter's wife.

Peter and Jane are John's parents.
Peter is John's father.
Jane is John's mother.
John is Peter and Jane's son.
Tina is John and Mary's daughter.

Tina, Harry, Jack and George are John and Mary's children.

Peter and Jane are Tina's grandparents.
Peter is Tina's grandfather.
Jane is Tina's grandmother.
Tina is Peter's granddaugher.
Harry is Peter's grandson.

Harry is Tina's brother.
Tina is Harry's sister.

George is Angelina's uncle.
Jill is Angelina's aunt.
Angelina is William's cousin.
Angelina is George and Jill's neice.
Tim is George and Jill's nephew.

Emily is Tina's sister-in-law.
Emily is John and Mary's daughter-in-law.
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Adverbs of frequency

We always eat rice for lunch.
They usually watch TV in the evening.
I often travel by bus.
She sometimes wakes up early.
He occasionally goes to the cinema.
It doesn't often rain.
We hardly ever travel outside our city.
They rarely do anything at weekends.
She never wants to see him again.
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Useful phrases

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Expressions with 'do' and 'make'

Do (+ task)

Do the housework, the washing (up), the ironing, the gardening, homework, research, an exam, exercises, business with, your best, some work, a job, a favour, you good, a crossword, your hair, the shopping

Make (for producing something new)

Make coffee, dinner, an appointment, a plan a sandwich, a cake, a photocopy, a film, a noise, a sound, a mistake, a bed, a mess, a comment, a suggestion, an impression, a fortune, a phone call
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Expressing feelings

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ManyThings - Interesting Things for ESL Students

Many Things

ManyThings is a website totally recommended for those people who are learning English and want to use the Internet in order to learn English online for free. In ManyThings you’ll find resources to practice every aspect of the English language: vocabulary, speaking, grammar, reading, listening, writing and even singing.

The only feature that could be criticised from ManyThings is its visual aspect. It’s like as if the design of the website hasn’t been updated since the 90’s. However, information is well organised and usability is not bad. Moreover, the resources, materials and activities that you’ll find in ManyThings are really valuable and this is what matters in order to improve your English.

Another interesting feature from ManyThings is that it includes games and activities with lists of vocabulary, grammar exercises, slang, anagrams (an anagram is a word made by using letters of another word in a different order), daily pronunciation practice and also exercises to learn songs in English.

In short, ManyThings is a website that you should visit this summer to practice your English.

Visit ManyThings
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Appropriate use of "An" instead of "A"

In American English, there are several instances where you would use “an” instead of “a” to speak or write correctly. Both “an” and “a” are called indefinite articles because they don't tend to be as specific as other forms of articles like “the.” If you say, “I was talking to a dog,” it’s not quite the same as saying, “ I was talking to the dog.” “I want a sandwich” is equally not as specific as “I want the sandwich you are holding.”
Lots of people are taught the rule that it is important to use “an” instead of “a” when words begin with a vowel. This is not exactly accurate. Some words beginning with a vowel are best proceeded by “a” instead of “an”. Actually the difference lies in how the word sounds, not the letter with which it begins. If the initial sound of the word sounds like a consonant but begins with a vowel, paying attention to that sound can help you decide that words like the following take “an” instead of “a.” Here are some words where it is easy to determine that “an” is the appropriate choice: An apple, an orange, an only child, an Italian, an early start, an eel, an unusual situation.
The vowel sounds produced in the first sound of each word in the above examples are classic vowel sounds, like short A, long O, short I, short E, long E and short U. These words, when they begin with such sounds, will tend to take “an” instead of “a”. Furthermore, words with a silent “h” like “herb” and “heir” often take “an” instead of “a”. In British English, you’ll find a few more words that drop the h sound and take “an” than you will in American English.

There are words that begin with vowels that will take “a” instead of “an”. The long U sound in words like ukulele, usual, useful, actually produces a “y” sound at the beginning comparable to the opening sounds in words like youthful. Though it would seem to make sense to use “an” instead of “a” since these words begin with a vowel, it isn’t just about the letter, but the sound. You would use “a” before ukulele, useful or usual. Furthermore, a few words with an “o” like one and once, make a beginning “W” sound and take an “a.” Examples include: a once in a lifetime opportunity, a useful tool, and a ukulele.

Lastly, you might be using an indefinite article before a number or a letter. Here, be directed by the opening sound of the number or letter. An H, an 8, an O, an A, and an S are correct, as are a 1, a 7, a T, a U, and a 2. Make sure that the opening sound is pure vowel, not a hidden consonant sound, when you plan on using “an” instead of “a”.
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What Are Vowels?

A vowel is a type of sound for which there is no closure of the throat or mouth at any point where vocalization occurs. Vowels can be contrasted with consonants, which are sounds for which there are one or more points where air is stopped. In nearly all languages, words must contain at least one vowel. While a word can be formed without any consonants – such as the English words I or way  – no word may consist of only consonants, without a vowel.
Vowels  in many languages are not crucial to the general meaning of the word. Rather, a vowel in these languages – of which many are Semitic languages – acts more to give a specific inflection than to differentiate the word from other distinct words. A parallel of this in English can be seen in the example of dive and dove or lay and lie, in which the core word is the same, but the changed vowel denotes tense. Languages that have this type of structure often do not even mark all of their vowels  in written text. Both Arabic and Hebrew are good examples of this, where the marking of many vowels is unnecessary in writing.
Since a vowel refers to a specific type of sound, orthographically some letters may represent a consonant in some circumstances, and a vowel in others. In English we can see this with the letters y and w which are most often used to make consonant sounds, but can also be used to represent vowels. In the case of y, for example, we can compare its use in the words yonder and day. In the word yonder, it acts distinctly as a consonant, with the center of the tongue blocking the flow of air on one side by touching the palette of the mouth – as what is called a palatal approximate. In the word day, on the other hand, it is forming a vowel sound akin to if the word were written in English as dei.

In the case of w, we could look at the words woo and how. In the word woo, the letter is acting as a consonant, with the back of the tongue blocking the flow of air on one side by touching the palette of the mouth – what is called a labiovelar approximate. In the word how, it serves as a vowel, which could be represented in English writing as how.

In English, there are five letters which always represent a vowel when written: a, e, i, o, and u. These five letters represent more than five vowel sounds, however, depending on the word, or if they are combined with other vowels. Compare the letter a in the words hat and hate as one of many examples.
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Expressing Preferences

I prefer walking to swimming. (generally)
I prefer chocolates to ice-cream. (generally)

I prefer watching football rather than playing basketball. (generally)
I would prefer to go shopping rather than to visit friends. (this time)

I prefer not to go clubbing. (generally / this time)

I would rather travel to Germany than drive to France. (generally / this time)
I would rather you didn’t come with us to the meeting. (this time)
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Elementary English Dictation 2 - Expressteach

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At the office

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A house

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Some problem pairs

Advice (guidance) e.g. I have a feeling they don’t follow their parents’ advice. noun
Advise (to recommend) e.g I advise you to see a dentist. verb

Effect (result) e.g. One of the effects of the oil spill is the ecological disaster it brings about. noun
(to have an impact) e.g. The new taxes will affect those on high incomes. verb

Borrow (to use something that belongs to somebody else) e.g. I borrowed a book from the library.
Lend (to give something to somebody that belongs to you) e.g. I’ll lend you my bicycle if you bring it back on Friday.

Lose (unable to find something) e.g. You’ll lose your things if you don’t look after them.
Loose (not tight) e.g. Those trousers look very loose on you!

Their (belonging to them) e.g. They are having their break.
There (to point something out) e.g. Look over there! Can you see her?

Quiet (silence) e.g. We need a quiet place to study.
Quite (rather) e.g. They were quite satisfied with the service at the hotel.

Whether (if) e.g. Do you know whether they want to come to dinner with us?
Weather (climate) e.g. What’s the weather like in Brazil?
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Planning English Sentences

Planning English Sentences is an investigation into the problems of generating natural language utterances to satisfy specific goals the speaker has in mind. It is thus an ambitious and significant contribution to research on language generation in artificial intelligence, which has previously concentrated the main on the problem of translation from an internal semantic representation into the target language.
planning English sentences
Dr. Appelt's approach, based on a possible worlds semantics of an intensional logic of knowledge and action, enables him to develop a formal representation of the effects of illocutionary acts and the speaker's beliefs about the hearer's knowledge of the world.

The theory is embodied and illustrated in a computer system, KAMP (Knowledge and Modalities Planner), described in the book. Dr. Appelt's work thus has important applications to the design of interactive computer systems, multi agent planning systems and the planning of knowledge acquisition.
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English Words History and Structure 2nd Edition is concerned primarily with the learned vocabulary of English - the words borrowed from the classical languages. It surveys the historical events that define the layers of vocabulary in English, introduces some of the basic principles of linguistic analysis, and is a helpful manual for vocabulary discernment and enrichment.
English words history and structure
The new edition has been updated with a discussion of the most recent trends of blending and shortening associated with texting and other forms of electronic communication and includes a new classification of the types of allomorphy. It discusses important topics such as segment sonority and the historical shifting of long vowels in English, and includes a new section on Grimm's law, explaining some of the more obscure links between Germanic and Latinate cognates. Exercises accompany each chapter and an online workbook contains readings and exercises to strengthen knowledge acquired in the classroom.
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What is English Preposition?

A preposition links nouns,pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition. A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence as in the following examples.

She held the book over the table.She read the book during class.
The book is on the table.
The book is beneath the table.
The book is leaning against the table.
The book is beside the table.

In each of the preceding sentences,a preposition locates the noun "Book" in space or in time.

A prepositional phrase is made up of the preposition, its object and any associated adjectives or adverbs. A prepositional phrase can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. The most common prepositions are "about," "above," "across," "after," "against," "along," "among," "around," "at," "before," "behind," "below," "beneath," "beside," "between," "beyond," "but," "by," "despite," "down," "during," "except," "for," "from," "in," "inside," "into," "like," "near," "of," "off," "on," "onto," "out," "outside," "over," "past," "since," "through," "throughout," "till," "to," "toward," "under," "underneath," "until," "up," "upon," "with," "within," and "without."

English preposition rules

Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a preposition:

The children climbed the mountain without fear.

In this sentence, the preposition "without" introduces the noun "fear." The prepositional phrase "without fear" functions as an adverb describing how the children climbed.

There was rejoicing throughout the land when the government was defeated. 

Here, the preposition "throughout" introduces the noun phrase "the land." The prepositional phrase acts as an adverb describing the location of the rejoicing.
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Telling the time - o'clock

1:00 One o'clock
2:00 Two o'clock
3:00 Three o'clock
9:00 Nine o'clock
10:00 Ten o'clock
12:00 Twelve o'clock
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Telling the time - to

12:35 Twenty five to one
12:40 Twenty to one
12:45 Quarter to one
12:50 Ten to one
12:55 Five to one
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Telling the time - past

12:05 Five past twelve
12:10 Ten past twelve
12:15 A quarter past twelve
12:20 Twenty past twelve
12:25 Twenty five past twelve
12:30 Half past twelve
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