Expressions with “by”

By shows how someone travels.
By bike, car, plane, train, boat, ship, bus, road, air, rail, sea, underground

By is used to show how we do something.
We paid by cheque / by credit card.
He contacted her by phone/ by fax / by email.
She made the card by hand.
They sent the letter by post.

We met by chance at the bus stop.
I rang her by mistake / by accident.

In the passive, by shows something is done by somebody/something.
He was fined by a policeman.
The football matched was watched by thousands of supporters.
Avatar was directed by James Cameron.

By is used to compare changes.
The amount has increased from 10% to 20% = It has increased by 10%.
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